Well well well,lets see what we have here. Your question is specifically asking about rendering the nukes incapable of being launched thus the main technology in such scenario would be per my evaluation three;
- EMP (Electromagnetic pulse) bombs. What does an EMP actually do?
An EMP releases huge waves of electromagnetic energy, which can act like a giant moving magnet. Such a changing magnetic field can cause electrons in a nearby wire to move, thereby inducing a current. With such a huge burst of energy, an EMP can cause damaging power surges in any electronics within range.
This would mean that the bombs cannot operate as their electronics are fried in layman terms. However, the silos and casing of such missiles are usually well hardened against such atatcks rendering them useless. The other problem would be the number of EMP bombs needed to all russian nukes including those in submarines and bombers assigned. The scenario itself is impossible to imagine and wishful thinking.
2. Sabotage by espionage. This probability for all the nukes again is far fetched past science fiction. It would need access to all the Russian inventory to physically disable them. These are HEAVILY GUARDED sites and equipment. They hold the Russian status to the world and they take a lot of pride in them. I dont think it would be easy to even sabotage one let alone the whole 6,000+ lot of them. Not even considering them noticing them while servicing. So still nope.
3. Cyber warfare. Since we are conjecturing, lets allow our minds to go wild and think of as many scenarios as possible. The other way would be to hack all the nukes and disable them. It could be done but then they are not connected into any network that can be directly accessed from outside their own trusted guards and maintenance teams. Thus this again can only remain hypothetical.
So far we have seen that the probable possibilities are already too wild to even be conceptualized. However, we may have a chance with STOPPING the nukes and not just making them incapable of being launched as that would need access to Russian mainland and secret bases or boomers. Already fictional to imagine for all the nukes.
STOPPING THE NUKES INSTEAD OF DISABLING
This new scenario will require;
- Worm hole technology. At the point of launch and before hitting the target, we would need to create a wormhole that swallows the nuke and teleports it away from earth where it cannot cause any destruction. In the movies, such sci-fi fantasy exist but sorry..in the real world such technology is only a dream. Maybe in 500 years or 5000 but not in our lifetime!!
- Anti-ballistic missile shields. These are currently already deployed and in reality have less than 5% chance of being effective even for just one missile. They can also be easily saturated by countermeasures and dummies making them also obsolete for absolute defense. It is important to note out of the 6000+ nukes Russia posses, only 1000 detonating succefully will cause apocalyptic trouble for civilization as we know it. To imagine ABMs can stop 2000 launches is a pipe dream worse than fiction!!
So far it seems the only options left is to assasinate whoever has the power to command their launch yet no one is sure whoever takes over would be worse of give the same orders. This again seems futile especially where the existence of Russia as a country is threatened. They will DEFINETLY launch their retaliation in full force!!
Dont lose hope though, there is a final solution that ensures the nukes stay disabled and prevents need for their use as has been in the last 70+years. All we have to do is stop threating the ruskies of make them feel threatened and they will keep their nukes exactly where they have been keeping them without causing us any catastrophes.
PEACE IS THE ONLY WAY BECAUSE NUCLEAR WAR CANNOT BE WON BY EITHER SIDE.